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OTH-085 Nuclear Submarines of The Soviet & Russian Navy book
OTH-085 Nuclear Submarines of The Soviet & Russian Navy bookFor the last 40 years nuclear submarines were the determinant factor of the Soviet and then Russian Navy marine power. Their design and construction are truly unique page in the history of the worlds shipbuilding. Starting 1955, when the construction of the first nuclear submarine started, 249 nuclear submarines have been built, more than in the rest of the world altogether.
Contrary to the other countries, the USSR and Russia built three and not two classes of nuclear submarines - strategic armed with ballistic missiles, multipurpose submarines armed with short range missiles and torpedoes, and attack submarines armed with long and middle range cruise missiles. The later were intended to be deployed againsted aircraft carrier groups of the potential enemy and did not have analogues in foreign navies.
CKBMT "Rubin", SPMBM "Malakhit" in Leningrad and CKB "Lazurit" in Gorkiy designed nuclear submarines in the USSR. The building of the ships was undertaken at shipyards in Severodvinsk, Komsomolsk-upon-Amur, Leningrad and Gorkiy. At present, the building of nucear submarines is done only at "Seveniy Mashinostroitelniy Zavod" (Northern Machine Building Plant) in Severodvinsk.
The Soviet and Russian nuclear submarines can be divided into four generations according to their construction and combat capabilities. The most characteristic features of the first generation submarines (projects 627, 645, 658, 659, 675) are two shaft two reactors energy generator. The benefits of this construction are the high speed and reliability of energy system due to doubling of all systems. The handicap of the first generation submarines - high level of noise and fire hazard caused by the usage of chemical means for carbon-dioxide absorption. Besides, the Soviet Submarines were inferior to American ones in effectiveness of their missile armament.
The second generation of nuclear submarines (projects 667, 670, 671, 705) became a serious step forward. Since their building, the Soviet submarine building industry occupied the leading position in the world both in qualitative (especially in the areas of usage of titanium technologies, liquid metals heat carriers and automation on the submarines of project 705) and quantitative aspects (during the 70s the USSR built three times more submarines than the USA). But still, the Soviet submarines emitted more noise than the American ones.
The nuclear submarines of the third generation (projects 945, 685, 949, 971) were characterized by better furtiveness due to the increased depth of dive and decrease of noise levels. The unique strategic missiles carriers of project 941, the largest submarines in the world, also belong to this generation.
At present, Russia builds the submarines of the fourth generation (projects 885, 955). In their characteristics, including noise levels, they go at par the most modern foreign analogues. But due to unsatisfactory financing, the possibility of their quick completion is rather distant.
List of Contents
Nuclear Multi-Purpose Submarines
Project 627/627A (November class)
Project 645 (November class)
Project 671/671V (Victor I class)
Project 671 RT (Victor II class)
Project 671RTM/671RTMK (Victor III class)
Project 705/705K (Alfa class)
Project 945 (Sierra I class)
Project 945A (Sierra II class)
Project 686 (Mike class)
Project 971 (Akula class)
Nuclear Submarines with Cruise Missiles
Project 659 (Echo I class)
Project 675 (Echo II class)
Project 661 (Papa class)
Project 670/670M (Charlie l/ll class)
Project 949/949A (Oscar l/ll class)
Project 885 (-)
Missile Strategic Submarine Cruisers
Project 658 (Hotel class)
Project 667A/667AU (Yankee class)
Project 667B (Delta I class)
Project 667BD (Delta II class)
Project 667BDR (Delta III class)
Project 667BDRM (Delta IV class)
Project 941 (Typhoon class)
Project 955 (-)
80 pages, 137 photos, 60 schemes
This issue does not include experimental SSN of Uniform, X-Ray and NORSUB-5 classes because they have no armament and are not in the Russian Navy Order of Battle.
1. Nuclear sub-surface cruiser "Kursk". Photograph from A. Odaikin's collection.
2. B-264 submarine (project 671 RTM). Pacific Fleet, July, 1998. Photograph by G. Pavlov.
3. Nuclear submarine of 671 RT project, 1982
4. Nuclear submarine of 945A project
5. Nuclear submarine K-1
6. Nuclear submarines at their base in Viliuchinsk. B-305 is in front, 1995