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OKB-004 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit

OKB-144 OKB-004 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit
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OKB-004 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit

OKB-144 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit. Pic.1
OKB-144 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit. Pic.1

OKB-144 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit. Pic.2
OKB-144 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter model kit. Pic.2

Photoetched parts included, large decal, high quality. Unique subject! Highly recommended!

Ilyushin Il-76 brief description

NATO reporting name: Candid

Indian Air Force name: Gajaraj (King Elephant)

TYPE:

Four-turbofan medium/long-range transport.

PROGRAMME:

"Design began late 1960s, led by G. V. Novozhilov, to replace turboprop An-12; prototype (SSSR-86712) flew 25 March 1971; three prototypes and three static test airframes built at Khodinka (GAZ 30); official 1974 film showed development squadron of Il-76s, with twin-gun rear turrets, as vehicles for airborne troops; series production began 1975, exceeded 800 by early 1994; seven delivered for civil use 1993; production continues at Chkalov Plant (GAZ 34), Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

VARIANTS:

Il-76 ('Candid-A'): Initial basic military production version.

Il-76T ('Candid-A'): Civil conversion of Il-76; additional fuel in wing center-section, above fuselage; heavier payload; no armament. Description applies to this version.

Il-76M ('Candid-B'): As Il-76T but military; up to 140 troops or 125 paratroops carried as alternative to freight; rear gun turret (not always fitted on export aircraft) containing two 23 mm twin-barrel GSh-23L guns; small ECM fairings (optional on export aircraft) between center windows at front of navigator's compartment, on each side of front fuselage, and each side of rear fuselage; packs of ninety-six 50 mm IRCM flares on landing gear fairings and/or on sides of rear fuselage of aircraft operating into combat areas.

Il-76K: Initial cosmonaut training version, enabling occupants to experience brief periods of weightlessness.

Il-76TD ('Candid-A'): Unarmed; generally as Il-76T but with strengthened wings and center-fuselage; Aviadvigatel D-30KP-2 turbofans, maintaining full power to ISA +23°C against ISA +15°C for earlier models; maximum T-O weight and payload increased; 10,000 kg (22,046 lb) additional fuel increases maximum fuel range by 648 n miles (1,200 km; 745 miles); upgraded avionics; first identified when newly built SSSR-76467 passed through Shannon Airport, Ireland, November 1982; fully operational July 1983; one specially equipped with seats, soundproofing, buffet kitchen, toilet and working facilities, to carry members of Antarctic expeditions between Maputo, Mozambique, and Molodozhnaya Station, Antarctica (proving flight February 1986 with 94 passengers, 14,000 kg; 30,865 lb of scientific equipment, cargo and baggage containers).

Il-76MD ('Candid-B'): Military version; generally as Il-76M but with improvements of Il-76TD. One (RA-76753) operated as flying laboratory.

Il-76MDK: Adaptation of Il-76MD to enable cosmonauts to experience several tens of seconds of weightlessness during training.

Under development is new version of Il-76TD with CFM56 turbofans, each rated at 138.8 kN (31,200 lb st); range increased 20 to 30 per cent; fuel burn decreased; noise reduced to comply with ICAO Ch 3 Appendix 16.

Il-76MF: Stretched military version with four Aviadvigatel PS-90AN turbofans, each 156.9 kN (35,275 lb st). Noise and emission characteristics conform with ICAO standards. New flight and navigation equipment includes Kupol III-76MF IFCS and CMCS. Cargo hold lengthened 6.6 m (21 ft 8 in) by two plugs, fore and aft of wings; length overall 53.19 m (174 ft 6 in), height overall 14.45 m (47 ft 5 in); maximum payload and T-O weight increased; alternative payloads include four YAK-10 or YYK-20, or nine YAK-5 or PA-5.6 containers; range, with reserves, with 40,000 kg (88,185 lb) payload 2,805 n miles (5,200 km; 3,230 miles). Two 2.5 tonne traveling cranes in cargo hold; lifting capacity 5 tonnes for a centerline load. First flight (IS-76900; c/n 17563) 1 August 1995. To be built in Tashkent. CFM56 engines to be optional. Stated by commander of Russian Military Transport Aviation, on 15 March 1996, to be one of three types to be operated in 21st century. Two ordered in 1996 budget.

Il-76TF: Civil version of Il-76MF; available 1996.

Il-76MDP: Firefighting conversion of Il-76 demonstrated first in 1990; up to 44,000 kg (97,000 lb) of water/fire retardant in two cylindrical tanks in hold; discharge, replenishment and draining systems; drop zone aiming devices; up to 384 meteorological cartridges in dispensers for weather modification; able to water-bomb an area of 500 x 100 m (1,640 x 330 ft), or to carry, and parachute when required, 40 fully equipped firefighters; all airborne fire equipment (known as VAP-2: dischargeable aviation system; weight 5,000 kg; Il,025 lb) can be installed in standard Il-76, or removed, in 4 hours; tank replenishment time 10 to 15 minutes; discharge time 6 to 7 seconds, with option of successive discharge of tanks to cover 600 x 80 m (1,970 x 260 ft); airspeed during discharge 130 to 215 knots (240 to 400 km/h; 150 to 248 mph) at 80 m (260 ft).

Il-76LL: Engine testbed conversion, carrying gas turbine of up to 245 kN (55,100 lb st), including turboprops, in place of normal port inner D-30KP; provisions for five test engineers; four Il-76LLs are available, on commercial contract basis, from Gromov Flight Research Institute; engines tested include NK-86, PS-90A and D-18T turbofans and D-236 and D-27 propfans; testing of NK-93 propfan was scheduled to begin 1995. Maximum vertical g +2/-0.3; maximum bank angle 30°; maximum angle of attack 15°; maximum rate of roll 5°/s.

Il-76VPK: Airborne command post version of Il-76MD; two examples (SSSR-76450 and -76451) photographed at Zhukovsky Flight Research Centre 1992. Design features include a large canoe-shaped fairing above fuselage forward of wings, containing satcom/IR equipment; a ventral canoe-shape radome and strakes; five small antennae above center-section; other small antennae, and air intake scoops, under front fuselage and at rear of main landing gear fairings; long and shallow fairing forward of dorsal fin on each side at top of fuselage; large downward inclined flat plate antenna on each side under tailcone; long pod-mounted probe on pylon under each outer wing; nose glazing around navigator's compartment deleted and flight deck rear side windows covered; downward-facing exhaust near end of port landing gear fairing; partially retracted basket-drogue of what appears to be a VLF trailing wire aerial under rear fuselage. Service designation Il-82.

Il-76SK: Airborne control post for Tu-160SK/Burlak space launch system. One aircraft (RA-76453), conversion of Beriev Be-976 (which see), exhibited at Moscow Air Show '95.

Specialized variants and developments of Il-76 include transports modified to carry external loads, including Tu-160 tailplane, above fuselage; the AEW&C A-50 ('Mainstay') and Be-976 radar picket (both described separately under Beriev OKB entry); the Il-78 ('Midas') flight refuelling tanker (described separately); the AEW&C Adnan 1 and single-point flight refuelling tanker modified for Iraq.

DESIGN FEATURES:

Late 1960s requirement was to carry 40 tonnes of freight 2,700 n miles (5,000 km; 3,100 miles) in less than 6 hours, with ability to operate from short unprepared airstrips, in the most difficult weather conditions experienced in Siberia, the north of the Soviet Union and the Far East, while much simpler to service and able to fly much faster than An-12; wings mounted above fuselage to leave interior unobstructed; rear-loading ramp/door; unique landing gear, with two large external fairings for each main gear. Wing anhedral constant outboard of center-section; sweepback 25° at quarter-chord; thickness/chord ratio 13 per cent at root, 10 per cent at tip; all tail surfaces sweptback.

FLYING CONTROLS:

Hydraulically boosted; manual operation possible in emergency; mass balanced ailerons, with balance/trim tabs; two-section triple-slotted trailing-edge flaps over approximately 75 per cent of each semi-span; eight upper-surface spoilers forward of flaps on each wing, four on each inner and outer panel; leading-edge slats over almost entire span, two on each inner panel, three on each outer panel; variable incidence T tailplane; elevators and rudder aerodynamically balanced, each with tab.

STRUCTURE:

All-metal; five-piece wing of multispar fail-safe construction, center-section integral with fuselage; basically circular-section semi-monocoque fail-safe fuselage; underside of upswept rear fuselage made up of two outward-hinged clamshell doors, upward-hinged panel between doors, and downward-hinged ramp.

LANDING GEAR:

Hydraulically retractable tricycle type. Steerable nose unit has two pairs of wheels, side by side, with central oleo. Main gear on each side has two units in tandem, each unit with four wheels on single axle. Low-pressure tires size 1,300 x 480 mm on main wheels, 1,100 x 330 mm on nose wheels. Nose wheels retract forward. Main units retract inward into two large ventral fairings under fuselage, with additional large fairing on each side of lower fuselage over actuating gear. During retraction main wheel axles rotate around leg, so that wheels stow with axles parallel to fuselage axis (that is wheels remain vertical but at 90° to direction of flight). All doors on wheel wells close when gear is down, to prevent fouling of legs by snow, ice, mud and so on. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Tire pressure can be varied in flight from 2.50 to 5.00 bars (36 to 73 lb/sq in) to suit different landing strip conditions. Hydraulic brakes on main wheels.

POWER PLANT:

Four Aviadvigatel D-30KP turbofans, each Il7.7 kN (26,455 lb st), in individual underwing pods. Each pod on large forward-inclined pylon and fitted with clamshell thrust reverser. Integral fuel tanks between spars of inner and outer wing panels. Total fuel capacity 109,480 liters (28,922 US gallons; 24,083 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION:

Crew of seven, including two freight handlers. Side by side seating for pilot and co-pilot on flight deck. Station for navigator below flight deck in glazed nose. Forward-hinged main cabin door on each side of fuselage forward of wing. Crew emergency escape hatch forward of, and lower than, main door on port side; access via two-piece upward-folding door forming flight deck floor under port rear seat and via door at rear of navigator's compartment. Two windows on each side of hold serve as emergency exits. Hold has reinforced floor of titanium alloys, with folding roller conveyors, and is loaded via rear ramp. Entire accommodation pressurized, permitting carriage of 140 troops or 125 paratroops as alternative to freight. Advanced mechanical handling systems for containerized and other freight, which can include standard ISO containers, each 12 m (39 ft 4{1/2} in) long, building machinery, heavy crawlers and mobile cranes. Typical loads include six containers measuring either 2.99 x 2.44 x 2.44 m (9 ft 9{3/4} in x 8 ft x 8 ft) or 2.99 x 2.44 x 1.90 m (9 ft 9{3/4} in x 8 ft x 6 ft 2{3/4} in) and with loaded weights of 5,670 kg (12,500 lb) or 5,000 kg (Il,025 lb) respectively; or 12 containers measuring 1.46 x 2.44 x 1.90 m (4 ft 9{1/4} in x 8 ft x 6 ft 2{3/4} in) and each weighing 2,500 kg (5,5Il lb) loaded; or six pallets measuring 2.99 x 2.44 m (9 ft 9{3/4} in x 8 ft) and each weighing 5,670 kg (12,500 lb); or 12 pallets measuring 1.46 x 2.44 m (4 ft 9{1/4} in x 8 ft) and each weighing 2,500 kg (5,5Il lb). Folding seats along sidewalls in central portion of hold. Quick configuration changes made by use of modules, each able to accommodate 36 passengers in four-abreast seating, litter patients and medical attendants, or cargo. Three such modules can be carried, each approximately 6.10 m (20 ft) long, 2.44 m (8 ft) wide and 2.44 m (8 ft) high; loaded through rear doors by two overhead traveling cranes, and secured to cabin floor with cargo restraints. Two winches at front of hold, each with capacity of 3,000 kg (6,615 lb). Cranes embody total of four hoists, each with capacity of 2,500 kg (5,5Il lb). Ramp can be used as additional hoist, with capacity of up to 30,000 kg (66,140 lb) to facilitate loading of large vehicles and those with caterpillar tracks. Pilot's and co-pilot's windscreens can each be fitted with two wipers, top and bottom.

SYSTEMS:

Flight deck only, or entire interior, can be pressurized; maximum differential 0.50 bar (7.25 lb/sq in). Hydraulic system includes servo motors and motors to drive flaps, slats, landing gear and its doors, ramp, rear fuselage clamshell doors and load hoists. Flying control boosters supplied by electric pumps independent of central hydraulic supply. Electrical system includes engine-driven generators, auxiliary generators driven by APU, DC converters and batteries. It powers pumps for flying control system boosters, radio and avionics, and lighting systems.

AVIONICS:

Radar: Weather radar in nose; nav and ground mapping radar in undernose radome.

Flight: Full equipment for all-weather operation by day and night, including computer for automatic flight control and automatic landing approach.

EQUIPMENT:

APU in port side landing gear fairing for engine starting and to supply all aircraft systems on ground, making aircraft independent of ground facilities."

LENGTH (m): 46.59

HEIGHT (m): 14.76

WING SPAN (m): 50.50

MAX T-O WEIGHT (kg): 170000

MAX WING LOAD (kg/m{2}): 566.70

MAX LEVEL SPEED (knots): 323

MAX RANGE (km): 3940

SERVICE CEILING (m): 12000

T-O RUN (m): 850

LANDING RUN (m): 450
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(source: Jane's)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ilyushin Il-76 & Il-78

Country of origin: Russia

Type: Strategic freighter. Il-78 -Aerial refueller

Powerplants: Four Il7.7kN (26,455lb) Aviadvigatel (Solovyev) D-30KP turbofans. Il-76MF - Four 156.9kN (35,275lb) Aviadvigatel PS-90AN turbofans.

Performance., Il-76M - Max speed 850km/h (460kt), cruising speed 750 to 8OOkm/h (405 to 432kt). Max range 6700km (3617nm), range with a 40 tonne (88,185lb) payload 50OOkm (2700nm). Il-76MD Speeds same. Range with max payload 3650km (1 970nm), range with 20 tonne (44,090lb) payload 7300km (3940nm). Il-76MF - Range with 40 tonne (88,185lb) payload 5200km (2805nm).

Weights., Il-76M - Max takeoff 170,000kg (374,785lb). Il-78 - Empty 98,000kg (216,050lb), max takeoff 190,000kg (418,875lb).

Dimensions: Il-76M & Il-76MF - Wing span 50.50m (165ft 8in), length 46.59m (152ft 10in), height 14.76m (48ft 5in). Wing area 300.Oml (3229.2sq ft). Il-76MF - Same except length approx 53m (1 74ft).

Accommodation., Il-75M & Il-76MF - Grew of seven comprising two pilots, flight engineer, navigator and radio operator, plus two freight handlers. Can carry up to 140 troops or 120 paratroops.

Armament, Il-76 - Provision for two 23mm twin barrel GSh-23L guns in the tail.

Operators., Cuba, India, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Syria, Ukraine.

History., The Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO name 'Candid') was developed as a replacement for the turboprop powered Antonov An-12 (described separately).

Il-76 development under the leadership of G V Novozhilov began in the late 1960s, resulting in the type's first flight on March 25 1971. Series production commenced in 1975.

In the now classic military freighter configuration, the Il-76 features a high mounted wing passing above the fuselage, four engines, a T-tail, rear loading ramp and freight doors. For enhanced short field performance the Il-76 features wide span triple slotted trailing edge flaps, upper surface spoilers and near full span leading edge slats, while the aircraft rides on a total of 20 low pressure tires, the front nose unit features four wheels, the main wheel bogies having two rows of four tires each.

Military versions developed from the basic Il-76 include the Il-76M with additional fuel and the Il-76MD with increased takeoff and payload weights and D-30KP-2s which retain their power output to higher altitudes. The stretched PS-90 powered Il-76MF first flew on August 1 1995. The A-50 AEW&C development is described under Beriev.

The Il-78 'Midas' is an air-to-air refuelling development of the Il-76, built to replace Myasishchev 'Bison' tankers. The Il-78 is based on the Il-76MD and features two internal fuel tanks which can be removed allowing the aircraft to revert to a freighter. The more developed Il-78 features three permanent tanks capable of holding up to 35 tonnes of fuel. Fuel is transferred via three hose drum units, one under each wing and one on the rear starboard fuselage, a rangefinding radar is built into the rear fuselage and the observer is located in the tail. Service entry was in 1987.

(source: International Directory of Military Aircraft 1998-1999)