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www.Aviapress.com >  Model kits >  Maquette > 

MAQ-4051 1/400 Potemkin Russian Imperial Fleet Battleshipl model kit

Maquette MAQ-4051 1/400 Potemkin Russian Imperial Fleet Battleshipl model kit
Price 67.37
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MAQ-4051 1/400 Potemkin Russian Imperial Fleet Battleshipl model kit

Potemkin-class battleship (3f/2m). L/B/D: 378.5 ? 73 ? 27 (115.3m ? 22.3m ? 8.2m). Tons: 12,582 tons. Hull: steel. Comp.: 741. Arm.: 4 ? 12" (2 ? 2), 14 ? 6", 5 ? 457mm TT. Armor: 229mm belt, 76mm deck. Mach.: triple expansion, 10,600 ihp, 2 screws; 16 kts. Built: Nikolaiev Admiralty Yard, Nikolaiev, Russia; 1903.
Immortalized in Sergei Eisenstein's classic silent film Battleship Potemkin (1925), the pre-dreadnought battleship Kniaz Potemkin Tavricheski was named for Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin, who under Catherine the Great annexed the Crimea and built Russia's first fleet on the Black Sea in the late eighteenth century. Potemkin was the last and largest of eight Russian capital ships commissioned between 1886 and 1900 for the Black Sea Fleet, one of three dictated by Russia's peculiar maritime geography. Under the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Russian warships were denied access to the Turkish-held Bosporus, and the Black Sea Fleet had to operate independently of the Baltic and Far East Fleets. When the Baltic Squadron dispatched to the Pacific during the Russo-Japanese War was destroyed in the Strait of Tsushima on May 27, 1905, Potemkin was the most powerful ship in the Russian Navy's only cohesive naval force.
Russia's humiliation in the Far East demoralized the military and was accompanied by a worsening economic situation and widespread antigovernment unrest among reform-minded intellectuals and factory workers. A peaceful march outside the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg was brutally suppressed by Cossacks on January 22, 1905, known as Bloody Sunday. The Black Sea port of Odessa remained relatively unaffected by these developments until the spring, when strikes were called. On June 26, workers in nearby Peresyp clashed with Cossacks, and the local army commander, General Kokhanov, established martial law.
Social Democrats had been active in the fleet since 1903, and in June 1905 they planned for a general mutiny during gunnery trials off Tendra Island. Sympathy for reform varied from ship to ship, and Potemkin's crew was viewed as among the most loyal, but after the ship sailed for Tendra, on June 27 the men refused to eat maggotinfested meat that had been brought aboard. Captain Yevgeny Golikov tried to assure his crew that the meat was edible, but Commander Ippolit Giliarovsky, his second in command, was intent on asserting his authority. He ordered twelve sailors chosen at random ranks to be executed—though some feel he may have been bluffing. When a firing squad appeared, Torpedo Quartermaster Afanasy Matushenko, a Social Democrat agitator, reportedly shouted, "Don't shoot your own comrades—you can't kill your own shipmates." This was followed by shouts to seize the ship, and some of the men rushed the armory. Within half an hour, seven officers had been killed and thrown overboard, including Giliarovsky and Golikov; among the mutineers, Able Seaman Grigory Vakulinchuk was mortally wounded.
Matushenko ordered the ship to Odessa, and a People's Committee was established to run the ship. The mutineers threatened to bombard the city if met with resistance. As the most powerful weapon in Russia's arsenal was in the hands of insurrectionists, the threat was real enough, and Czar Nicholas declared "a state of war" to exist with the mutineers. The mutineers landed Vakulinchuk's corpse on the quay near the foot of the majestic Richelieu Steps, where it became a focal point for Odessa's revolutionaries. That afternoon, demonstrators on the steps were caught between two detachments of Cossacks. The massacre of hundreds of civilians went unnoticed aboard the Potemkin because of the noise and dust of coaling operations. Yet when apprised of the tragedy, the mutineers refused to turn their guns against the city because they could identify no specific targets. That night, Odessa was engulfed in riots, and an estimated 6,000 people were killed by soldiers and looters.
When news of the mutiny reached Sevastopol, Georgi Pobiedonsets ("George the Victorious"), Tri Sviatitelia ("Three Saints"), and Dvenadtsat Apostolov ("Twelve Apostles") were dispatched to Odessa. As the ships approached, Potemkin sailed out with a signal ordering "Surrender or we fire," and Rear Admiral Vishnevetsky turned for Tendra to join the flagship Rotislav and Sinop, while Potemkin returned to Odessa, flush with victory. The strengthened squadron returned to Odessa, and shortly after noon on June 30 Potemkin sailed out to meet the ships. Not gunfire but cheers met the ship as she twice steamed through the fleet, and the captain of Georgi Pobiedonsets surrendered his command to mutineers aboard his ship, which returned to Odessa with the Potemkin. (When the remaining ships returned to Sevastopol, the Black Sea Fleet's Admiral Chukhnin dismissed 5,000 ratings and ordered the engines of the remaining battleships disabled.)
Georgi Pobiedonsets's crew were not committed revolutionaries, and on July 1 the ship weighed anchor to leave port. Under threat of bombardment by Potemkin at point-blank range, she came about but was driven hard aground on the harbor mole, thus putting her powerful guns at the disposal of the military authorities in Odessa. With the tables turned against them, Potemkin's crew voted to sail for Constanta, Romania, where they arrived the following day.
Romania's King Carol was wary of offending his giant neighbor to the north and refused the ship more than a day's provisions, and on July 3 Potemkin sailed for Feodosiya in the Crimea, where she arrived on July 6. Army patrols killed a number of sailors as they attempted to steal coal barges. Faced with the lack of food, fuel, and fresh water, the mutineers reluctantly returned to Constantsa, where a majority of the crew accepted the offer of Romanian citizenship. Before leaving the ship, Matushenko ordered her scuttled in the shallow harbor. Two Russian battleships reached Constanta the next day, and by July 11 Potemkin had been pumped out and was in tow back to Odessa. The mutiny that prefigured the Russian revolution by twelve years was over.
On October 9, Czar Nicholas ordered the ship renamed Panteleimon in honor of a Russian Orthodox saint whose feast day is also the anniversary of the Russian victory over the Swedes at the Battle of Gangut (in Swedish, Hang?) on July 27, 1714. The pre-dreadnoughts of the Black Sea Fleet remained in service through World War I, though they were superseded by three Imperatritsa Maria-class dreadnoughts commissioned in 1915. In April 1917, the newly installed Provisional Government renamed the ship Potemkin and a month later Boretz zu Svobodu ("Fighter for Liberty"). The old ship changed hands several times over the next two years as control of Sevastopol passed to the independent Ukraine, the German army, counterrevolutionaries (who scuttled her on April 25, 1919), and Bolsheviks. She was finally broken up in 1923.