|www.Aviapress.com > Magazines > Bronekollektsia >|
BKL-200203 Bronekollektsia N3 2002: Red Army Artillery Tractors magazine
For many ages, one of the usual attributes of the artillery was a pack of horses dragging a gun limber with a cannon attached to it. Until the beginning of the last century, the artillery was drawn by horses everywhere in the world, not depending upon the caliber and the weight of artillery pieces, the only changing factor was the amount of horses in the pack. And when there were not enough horse powers, an officer commanded "To the wheels" and the soldiers of the crew pulled out horses, limber and the gun outside of road mud all of them had gotten stuck in. The alternative to the horses with their marching speed of no more than 10-12 km/h appeared only with the advent fo the automobiles and tractors. But the real use of the latter which pushed horses aside came only during the course of WWI.
Despite the formation of a few dozens of automotive and tractor march companies in Russia by 1917, the full conversion to the mechanical transportation was achieved only in the special purpose heavy artillery.
There was mainly horse drawn artillery in the Red Army as after the Civil war the amount of heavy guns decreased significantly. As the bulk of the artillery park consisted of 1902 type 76-mm field pieces, in the opinion of the commanders, the hoses were quite sufficient. From the beginning of the 1920s the army started receiving limited quantities of "Bolshevik" and "Kommunar" caterpillar tractors. The first one was used for towing heavy (according to the standards of those years) guns with weights of up to 6 tons (for instance at military parades they were towing the 1915 type AA guns), the second was mostly used as a vehicle for towing the most powerful at that moment field artillery systems - B-4 203mm howitzer on tracks. Automobiles were used mainly for transportation of light field guns and even that was happening mostly at military parades.
In the course of modernization of the most of guns of old systems and creation of the new types, already equipped with suspension and in some cases with pneumatic tires, the issue was raised on the transfer from the horse drawn artillery to the mechanically towed one. It was not an accident that the issue of modernization of artillery and the transfer to mechanical towing was mentioned in the Decree of PolitBureau of VKP(b) Central Committee "On the Condition of the Country's Defense". But the real work on the creation of the new artillery tractors only became possible after the adoption by the Council of Labor and Defence of Soviet of Peoples' Commissars on March 22, 1934 of the Decision "On the System of Artillery Equipment for the RKKA during the Second Five Year Plan". The vehicles touched upon below were built in the course of implementation of that decision.
List of Contents
Transport Tractor STZ-5
Transport Tractor "Stalinets-2"
32 pages, 49 photographs, 8 diagrams, 4 illustrations
1. "Komsomolets" tractor of series 3 in the exposition of the Artillery Museum in Hiamenlinne, Finland. This vehicle has riveted crew compartment.
2. "Komsomolets" T-20 tractor in winter type camouflage. Battle of Moscow, December 1941. Part of the canvas tent is shown as transparent.
3. "Komintern" tractor, this vehicle painted characteristically for a participation in a military parade. Moscow, 1938
4. "Voroshilovets" tractor in a two-colors camouflage of 1941-1942 period.
5. "Pioneer" tractor with 76-mm gun at the Red Square. 7th November 1936.
6. "Komsomolets" tractor of series 1 at military exercises, June 1939
7. "Komsomolets" tractors with 45-mm guns at Kuibyshev city.
8. "Komsomolets" tractor of series 3 with at canvas tent installed.
9. "Komsomolets" tractor of series 3 tows a 1932 type, 45-mm anti-tan gun. The exercises of the Kiev Special Group of Armies. Autumn, 1940
10. STZ-5 tractors with F-22 76-mm guns at the parade in Moscow, May 1, 1940
11. STZ-5 tractor tows a 1938 type, 122-mm howitzer to a firing position. Battle of Moscow, 1941
12. "Voroshilovets" with a B-4 203mm howitzer changes a fire position. Berlin suburbs, 1945