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ARX-003 Tupolev Tu-95 Story book
ARX-003 Tupolev Tu-95 Story book
As soon as the World War II finished, new war began. It was the «cold war» between the USSR and Western world. This world meant USA first of all. Both the USSR and USA was preparing to attack the foe with assistance of nuclear weapon. That time the USA had B-36 Peacemaker bombers, which could carry A-bomb. Long range B-36 nuclear bombers could reach the USSR territory, if Europian, Asiatic and North African air bases had been destroyed even.
Developing Tu-4 line, Tupolev design bureau proposed Tu-85 piston engined strategic nuclear bomber. But it wasn't adopted because of weak performance, compared to Convair B-36. Nevertheless, Tu-85 became the first step to new plane projecting.
New aircraft had to have sweptback wing. It allowed to place large bomb-bay after wing rear spar. The plane had maximum warload of 151, and normal one of 51. Defence armament consisted of 5 paired NR-23 cannons. The powerplant incorporated four turboprop engines. In 1951 the first pair of 2TV-2F was built under guidance of N.D. Kuznetsov. These engines were paired TV-2 turboprops which were created on the basis of German Jumo-012.
On 11 July 1951 new plane projecting decrees were signed CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) Central Committee, Counsil of Ministers and Minaviaprom (Aviation Industry Ministry) wished to have new bomber, which would be able to reach the USA territory and to retern in the USSR without refuelling built by OKB-156 (Tupolev design bureau). The main new aircraft warload was one nuclear bomb.
Signed on 11.07.51 decrees forsaw to have the first experimental plane created by September 1953. The plane had to have four 2TV-2F turboprops. The second experimental bomber equipped with TV-12 turboprops had to be built in a year. New «95» plane projecting was begun on 15.07.51 under guidance of S.M. Eger. The aircraft had to get serial name «Tu-20».
New bomber had the wing with following data: aspect ratio — 8.7; leading edge sweep 33°30'; 1/4 chord line sweep — 35°. Furthermore, to provide higher aerodynamic efficiency the wing had leading edge «turn», geometrical warping and aerodynamic warping. Thanks to dynamic load relief by engine nacelles, «95» wing was rather light and strong. Main fuel quantity was placed in wing soft tanks. Large fuselage single bomb-bay had heat setting and pressurization to provide early A-bomb versions radio and mechanical equipment functioning.
«95» bomber could carry nuclear and conventional bombs, mines and torpedoes. Furthermore, it had to use guided bombs too. This weapon had been creating by Min-selchozmash (Agriculture machinery industry ministery) Design Bureau Na 2 (KB-2) since 1949. KB-2 began UB-2000F and UB-5000F radio-guided bombs projecting in 1950. The defence equipment incorporated 3 turrets with paired AM-23 cannons, PRS-1 radar sight «Argon» and three PS-48MM sight station. However the «Argon» monitor had tail gunner — turrets commander only. He could fire
from all the turrets, using «Argon» data. PRS-1 «Argon» had operational sectors less, then turrets operational one.
«95» had the richest navigation equipment. It consisted of: long range radio navigation and instrument landing system, radio-compass, astrocompass, magnetic compass, flight gyroscope, large number of flight and navigation instruments, connected with bomb-sight autopilot and RPB-4 «Rubidiy MM» bomb radiosight.
Aircraft control system wasn't advanced. It incorporated mechanical elevators control. Directional and lateral control systems had reversable boosters. Airplane had control system ground locking. It was connected with engine control system to prevent take off with locked aircraft control.
«95» hadn't ejection seats. Emergency exit performed through the nose gear bay hatch and hatches in fuselage tail section.
New aircraft production accepted a lot of advanced technologies. It provided reducing experimental bomber creation time and it made serial production rather simple.
The full-scale model was adopted by State commission on 31 October 1951. N.I. Bazenkov became «95» leading designer. The first flying aircraft and static test speciment building had begun of plant Ms 18 in Kuibyshev by the full-scale model adoption moment.
The first pair of new planes (NsNs 5800001 and 5800002) had been built by the end of summer 1952. The first aircraft went to LliDB (flight tests station) OKB-156. Flight tests began on 20.09.52. The second aircraft was passing tests in TsAGI «static hall».
«95» maiden flight was performed on 12.11.52. It took 50 min. The crew chief was A.D. Perelet. 15 flights were carried out, when the 16th one yielded propellers blades pitch control failure. The flying tests were gone on in a year only. The 17th flight was fulfilled on 11.05.53. The tragedy occured then. The plane was crashed because of the third engine fire. 4 men were killed.
The reason of the disaster was one of the main gearbox wheel fatique failure. The first tests period gave negative results generally. The plane hadn't performance which were declared.
In order to get necessary data, improved aircraft «95-2» was created. The wing aspect ratio became — 8.8. Therefore, the plane weight was increased. But it had already been exceeded at the first prototype. New current strength standarts were adopted, to solve the problem. So, the maximum service normal load factor equal 2.00 was adopted, instead 2.55, A lot of structural units were redesigned to reduce their weight. New alloys were used in aircraft structure. Thanks to these steps, «95-2» weight excess was about 3 % only. TV-12 engines were improved too. They passed flying test programme with Tu-4 flying lab.
The engines were installed on «95-2» in December 1954. The aircraft was taken to flying tests on 21.01.55. «95-2» first flight was carried out on 16.02.55 by the crew under guidance of M.A. Nyuchtikiv. In spite of different problems, the plant test programme was completed on 8.01.56.
On 31 May 1956 three airplanes began to take Official state test programme. There were: «95-2» (the second prototype), a/c Ns 5800003 (serial plane) and a/c Ns 5800101
(serial plane). The state tests had completed by August 1956.
The airplanes showed low performance, so that a/c Ne 5800101 was taken for rebuilding. It received new engines TV-12M with power of 12500 ehp, and many other improvements. A/c Ns 5800101 began to take tests one's more in February of the next year. The bomber yielded fine results. So, this version was adopted for serial production.
But Myasischev M-4 strategic bombers had already been existing by that time. Furthermore, the arocket boom» was begining that years. So, Tupolev design bureau had to hurry up, and the decision to build equipped with old power plants bombers was taken. The planes got some avionics modernization only. New PS-53 radiosight was used, for example.
The new bomber designation was «Tu-95», and it was adopted by WS (Soviet Air Force) on 27.09.57. The first airplanes was like «95-2», but they got a lot of changes in future. The 31st aircraft was the last in the first production batch. This batch production was finished in 1957.
The first «Tu-95» airdivision (106th TBAD (Heavy Bombardment Air Division)) creation was begun in 1965. The division commander was twice Hero of the Soviet Union A.G. Mo-lodchii. The 106th TBAD incorporatedthe 409th TBAP (Heavy bombardment Air regiment (wing)) (commander — colonel M.M. Charitonov) which was created late in 1956 and created in 1956 the 1006th TBAP (commander — colonel V.P. Pavlov). The 106th TBAD base became Uzin town near Kiev. The 1223rd TBAP in Semipalatinsk (commander— Hero of the Soviet Union colonel V.M. Bezbokov) was created in 1957, The 1223rd TBAP was the part of 79th Air Division (commander — twice Hero of the Soviet Union major-general M.P. Taran).
The 1223rd TBAP target were: North of the USA, Canada, Western and Southern directions.
The first Tu-95 weapon «lvan» was 3 Mt nuclear bomb (product 6sd»). Improved «20 Mt» nuclear bombs had appeared by early 60-s, but they had huge dimensions. It made some difficulties, when they were hanged under Tu-95 bombers. Tu-95 had conventional weapon too. They were different types of bombs with calibre of 1500, 3000, 5000, 6000, 9000 rg. Naval weapon wasn't used practically.
The main first batch bombers problem was engines NK-12 with power of 1200 ehp. This shortcoming was eliminated, when more powerful NK-12M engines (1500 ehp) had appeared. New Tu-95 bomber had improved bomb-armament system. Bomber performance became better. Tu-95M were build at plant N2 18 till 1958. There were 19 Tu-95M created. But new engines weren't rather reliable. They hadn't autofeathering system. On 24,11,56 a/c N9 5800310 was crashed because of the system lack. The crew was short in ime during take-off after an engine failure with turbine destruction. They couldn't perform manual feathering, and the plane was lost.
Tu-95M service wasn't simple. Bomber could be in flight up to 20 hours. But the cockpit was uncomfortable and it made crew work very hard. The ground service brought a lot of problems, especially in winter, because of required oil viscosity oil lack. But in the course of time, aircraft was getting many improve-
ments. It increased the reliability and serviceability,
A lot of Tu-95 pilots and navigators performed flights with Civil Aviation (Aeroflot) crews to know different airports and routs better. Night flights and difficult weather conditions flights were important too. There were planes, which took part in nuclear weapon using test squadron. They had names Tu-95A or Tu-95MA, and they weren't differ from Tu-95 and Tu-95M respectively. The planes were used in three Soviet firing grounds till early sixties. One of Tu-95MA dropped nuclear bomp with power of 20 Mt in Sary-Chagan firing ground in the spring of 1960.
There was the single Tu-95V bomber, which was specially built for thermonuclear bomb earring. It was created for 100 Mt power bomb using. The bomb was named «Van-ya» (product 700) and it was made at Min-sredmash KB-11 (Design Bureau Ns 11 of Medium Machinery industry Ministery)..
Three superbombs were built and two bomb models were created too. Tu-95V leading designer was A.V. Nadashkevitch. The bomber was projected on the basis of Tu-95M. A serial bomber got special large bomb bay, which was equipped with superstrong bomb holder. On 30.10.61 the bomb drop was performed above Novaya Zemlya firing ground.
The power was determined as 58-65 Mt only, but it was the most powerful nuclear explosion in the world. This explosion had become one of the reasons, which led to making the treaty about nuclear tests prohibition in three spheres. The last nuclear explosive above Novaya Zemlya (New Land) firing ground took place on 1.08.62. The last of ten bombs series with power of 20 Mt was dropper then.
When missile-borne nuclears had appeared, Tu-95 get other tasks. Their targets became military bases, ports, aircraft carriers etc. Majority of the bombers got conventional heavy bombs, mines (ADM, MDM) and torpedoes 45-53. Some of Tu-95 remained nuclear weapon carriers only. Furthermore the bombers got one's more new task — long distance sea-patrol.
Late in sixties there was nesessary to equip the planes with new avionics and air refuelling system. In the middle of sixties Tu-95M were being improved with new radar «Rubidiy-ID», ADNS-4 long range navigation systems instesd of «Meridian», DISS-1 — Doppler drift and speed definder, RSBN-2 short range navigation system. From late sixties Tu-95M were equipped with more powerful NK-12MV turboprops with AV-60N propellers. The propellers had autofeathering system, and the engines had by far longer operational life.
Some Tu-95M got holder for 45 FAB-250 bombs earring. Their warload became 10935 kg.
Early in eighties 33 remaining Tu-95M were rebuilt into Tu-95V trainers to save the operational life of veny expensive modern Tu-95 versions.
But according to mutural treaty of the both sides the trainers were scrapped in period of «perestroika». It was the end of Tu-95 bomber versions age.
The government decree about transcontinental passenger and cargo planes built on the basis of Tu-95 was signed in 1955.
The cargo plane «95DT» project wasn't realised, because it hadn't advantages in com-
parison with specially created cargo planes. The passenger liner «114» project was by far more important, than «95DT» one. «114» had wider fuselage and it was the low-wing plane. It allowed to accomodate a lot of military load-es besides passengers. Furthermore Tu-114 had to prove, that Soviet airplanes were able to reach the USA. Exactly, using Tu-114 N.S. Chruschev visited the USA then. Tu-114 used by «Aeroflot». Because of Tu-114 creation delay, two serial Tu-95s were rebuilt in passenger version. The planes were named Tu-116. They were equipped with new avionics and NK-12M turboprops. They were used by Soviet air force till late eighties.
Strategic reconnaissance plane Tu-95MR had more successful fate. According to the Government order, which was signed in May 1960, different reconnaisance equipment had to be installed at Tu-95 during rebuilding process. The first Tu-95M (Nfi 0410) was rebuilt in 1962. The plane had special movable camera frames in the bomb-bay. There were 3 camera sets, which were differ in camera's composition. One of them was for night. It incorporated SAB (Luminous bomb) and FqtAB (photographic bomb) besides day and night cameras. Radio-reconnaissance station «Romb» and «Vishnya» were situated in the fuselage tail section instead cameras, which were on the staff at bomber version. The nose fuselage section was accomodated «Rubin-1 D» radar. The Tu-95M got air-refuelling probe and centralized ground refuelling system.
During one month new plane was tested, and the first Tu-95MR was taken by Soviet air force late in 1964. Other three Tu-95MR had been received by the end of sixties. They were differ from the first «MR» slightly. They could have reconnaissance radio-station SRS-6 «Romb-4A», SRS-7 «Romb4B» (in the tail) and SRS-1 (in the fuselage nosepart). The last Tu-95MRs had another aerials layout and another nose cabin glazing. One of the planes hadn't air-refuelling system.
Tu-95MR saw very extensive service. They operated from Hvalynka, Horol, Severo-morsk airfields and performed missions from Kamran and Danang airbases (Vietnam) late in seventies, which meant USA Pacific fleet and Pacific nuclear firing grounds observation. The planes had many modernizations during the service.
According to signed in 1952 Counsil of Ministers order airborne a/c control and warning system projecting was begun in sixties under guidance of A. Meletsky at Nil-17 (Scientific Research Institute) (MNIIP «Vega» from 1967). The system had to be based on Tu-114 airplane.
The radar aerial was accomodated in large fairing and was installed above the fuselage with mighty pilon. New «Liana» complex had early warning, electronic warfire, a/c control, airborne and ground command posts data interchange capability. Furthermore, the complex was able to search sea targets and move their position data out for Soviet navy ships and command posts.
The first experimental plane Tu-126 with «Liana» complex was built in 1961. Its maiden flight was performed in January 1962. Tu-126 was adopted in 1965. There were 8 Tu-126 built at plant Ns 18 in Kuibyshev, which were differ from the 1 st specimen and had air-refuelling probe and additional avionics. The planes saw wide service during many large combat trainings. One of Tu-126s took part in
war between Indaia and Pakistan. According to Western data, it based in India. Tu-126 used for the USSR Southern border patrol during Iran-Iraq was too. Tu-126 was in service till late eighties. They were changed by A-50 later.
In accordance with order which was signed on 21.07.59, OKB-156 had to create naval reconnaissance and submarine based missiles target indication plane on the basis of Tu-95. New plane had to find the target, to send its coordinates for submarine and to control missile with submarine jointly.
Created complex was named «Uspech» (Success) and had to serve «project 651» and «project 675» submarines. They carried 4 and 8 P-6 nuclear missiles respectively. Missiles range was 500 km. New Tu-95 version was equipped with missile guidance radiostation and powerful observation radar. Its aerial was placed instead bomb-bay. The version had radio reconnaissans stations only. They were «Romb», «Vishnya», «Kvadrat» station. There was standart ECM equipment too.
The first flight was performed on 21.09.61. The complex was named «Us-peh-1 A», and the plane got name «Tu-95RC». The first series production was begun at plant Ns 18 in Kuibyshev in 1963. Tu-95RC got full equipment set and air-refuelling system in serial production. ECM radio station SRS-151 was installed in tail section to replace gun turret later.
Tu-95RC was adopted by Soviet navy on 30.05.66. The navy got about 40 Tu-95RC totally. The planes based not only in the USSR, but they were in Cuba, Angola, Libyan, Vietnam, Ethiopia. Tu-95RC crews studied the majority of the Earth territory. So, soviet submarines became very efficient.
In 1974 P-6 missile was replaced by P-500 nuclear missile from naval complex «Ba-zalt». Its speed was in two times more, than P-6 had. The P-500 control system «Argon» operated with Tu-95RC jointly.
There were experiments with cooperation Tu-95RC and P-100 complex late in eighjties P-100 complex incorporated 3M40 «Moskit» anti-ship missile. Tu-95RC worked with guided missile carriers Tu-22M. It highly increased Tu-22M efficiency.
Russia had had 24 Tu-95RC by 1992.
There were other auxiliary Tu-95 versions: ECM plane for strategic aviation operation providing, flying lab for new engines stud-ing, flying lab with nuclear power plant on board Tu-95LAL and special plane for descending space modules searching. All of them weren't built in serial production.
Late in forties — early fifties anti-aircraft missile weapon was being developed quite quickly. So, strategic bombers couldn't reach target to attack it with bombs. It was necessary to equip bomber with missile, which could be launched without target anti-aircraft area passing. Such missiles (cruise missiles) were projected in USA since 1946. The USSR had cruise missile service experience at Tu-4 and Tu-16 bombers.
On 11 March 1954 Counsil of Ministers ordered to create long range cruise missile «Comet-20» for Tu-20 bomber («Tu-2Q» was presumable «95» bomber designation before it serial production). The order had to be performed by OKB-156 (missile carrier, test programme); A.I. Mikoyan OKB-155 division in Dubna (cruise missile); VM. Shabanov KB-1 of Glavspetcmash (Special machinery industry department of Medium machinery industry
Ministry) (missile control and it test programme).
The missile was projected under guidance of M.I. Gurevich. It was named X-20 and had to have RDS-6 thermo-nuclear charge. «Product-6» bomb had the same one. Cruise missile X-20 airframe was similar M-g-19 fighter one. Missile control was combined and had programmed autopilot, X-20 missile maximum launch distance was about 270-360 km.
Tu-95 lost some electronic equipment, got «YaD» radio station in fusrelage nose part and it operator's working place; special BD-206 missile launcher in bomb-bay; auxiliary petrol tanks for missile AL-7F engine start fuel and missile pre-start check equipment.
The first flight of new plane was made on 1.01.56. It got designation Tu-95K. There were two experimental Tu-95K (rebuilt Tu-95Ms NaNs 59210105, 50210425). Experimental missile X-20 appeared in test programme since 6.06.57. The first launch was made on 17.03.58, but it wasn't succesful because of X-20 engine failure.
New cruise missile complex Official State test programme was performed from 15.10.58 till 1.11.59. 18 launchers were made then. «Comet-20» (M-20) missile system was adopted on 9.09.60.
Tu-95K production was started an plant Na 18 in 1958. The first production batch at 4 bombers was completed in 1959. Some improvements were introduced in Tu-95K design since early sixties. Furthermore, bomber got NK-12V turboprops, equipped with propeller automatic feathering system.
Plant Ms 86 in Taganrog began cruise missile serial production, but X-20M version with improved RDS-6s nuclear warhead was introduced. Tu-95K was in serial production was 40 missile carriers. The total Tu-95K production till 1962.
The first Tu-95Ks arrived in Uzin on 29.08.59 and 1006th TBAD began new aircraft mastering. 1228th AP (79th AD (air division)) began to study new planes late in 1959, and in 1962 the missile carriers were studied by 409th AP (air wing). But Tu-95K service didn't lead to fine results. The complex had weak performance.
On 2.07.58 K-20 complex modernization order was signed. All of the project participants began it earlier.
QKB-156 equipped serial Tu-95K (Ms 2103) with centralized ground fuel filling system and «lstok» tanker searching and communication radio system. Rebuilt M-4 bombers were used as tankers. They were charged by II-78 afterwards. The new version was named Tu-95KD, and it was tested from 5.07.61 till 30.01.62. The first Tu-95KD was built at plant N° 18 (KuAZ) in the same year. There were 25 Tu-95KD. Furthermore, all the earlier Tu-95K got air-refuelling system. Tu-95 production was stopped at KuAZ in 1965. The plant began planes Tu-142 and passenger liners Tu-154 family production.
Cruise missile modernization and repair were performed at plant Na 123 of Defence Ministry.
Some airplane equipment was added and replaced by improved one. The following equipment was installed: 1 RSB-70 command radio station, RSIU-5 communication radio station or R-832 one (later), ARK-11 radio compass, RV-UM radio altimeter, PV-17 high-
altitude radio altimeter, KS-6D directional system and «Put-1B» navigation equipment. «YaD» radio station performances were improved too. So, target detection range was increased up to 600-660 km, and fire accuracy became higher.
Engeneers of 1006th TBAD created meteorological radio station «Tucha» on the basis of RPB-3 radar. «Tucha» had working range up to 420 km. It aerial was installed in front of nose landing gear bay. All of Tu-95K and KD were equipped with «Tucha» by permission of Tupolev design bureau later. Navigation tasks were solved with assistance of the radio station too.
Tu-95KD defence equipment was modernized with PRS-4 «Kripton» radar installation to replace tail gun turret radiosight. But not everyone got «Kripton». Airplane received SPS-3 ECM station and SPO-3 «Sirena-3» warning system. Furthermore radio reconnaissance station SRS-6 «Romb~4A» was added to «YaD» station to perform reconnaissance tasks.
The first plane was modernized in the middle of sixties. Ail of Tu-95KD had been improved by the end of decade. They were named Tu-95KM.
The planes, which weren't equipped with air-refuelling system, were rebuilt into Tu-95KU trainers. Tu-95KM were in service till late eighties.
In 1963 OKB-156 studied the possibility to equip Tu-95 with new missiles complex K-22,. The complex incorporated supersonic cruise missile D-2. It had liquid-propellant rocket engine and 200 kt nuclear warhead or convention one. D-2 range was more, than 500 km and cruise altitude was 20 km. But new complex tests met a lot of problems. In the course of time the project was postponed.
On 31.01.73 serial Tu-95KM arrived at KuAZ. The government order was signed in February 1973. According to the order, OKB-156 and KuAZ had to provide Tu-95KD and KM armament improvmeni with new missile complex installation. The third D-2 missile generation was existing that time. There were: «active» X-22 missile, «independent» X-22 missile and «passive» X-22MP one.
The first Tu-95KM rebuilding was started in May 1974. «YaD» radar was replaced with PNA-B one. «Kurs» antiradarX-22MP missile version control system aerials were installed on airplane boards. ECM 3PS-M1 «Siren» station aerial was mounted above main radar cowl; ECM SPS-153 «Reseda» station was used to replace tail turret. BD-206 launcher was equipped with made on the basis of Tu-22M BD-45F launcher adapter. Two pylons with Tu-22M BD-45K launchers were installed under wing.
Tu-95 K-22 tests began on 30.10.75, but the first launch was performed in 1981 only. Tu-95KD and KM rebuilding was started early in 80-s. There were 65 rebuilt planes. The complex was adopted in 1987 only, but Tu-95K-22s were received by strategic aviation wings since early 80-s. Russia had had 23 Tu-95K-22 by 1992. Today remaining Tu-95K-22 are based in Magadan and Anadyr. They perform sea patrol missions and haven't nuclear armament.
In the winter of 1976 universal long range cruise missile projecting order was signed. MMZ «Opyt» (Moscow mechanical plant «Opyt» (Experience)) had to create carrier for aviation versions of new missile. The version was named X-55. Tu-95M-5 was given for the test programme. It was Tu-95M version for KSR cruise missile which wasn't seen serial production. Rebuilt at TMZD (G. Dimitrov Taganrog machinery plant (former plant Ms 86)) plane got new equipment for X-55 missile using and it was named Tu-95M-55. The version Leading Designer became D, Antonov, which led Tu-95 since 1976. Tu-95M-55 maiden flight was performed in 1977. The revolver missile launcher was tested with Tu-95M-55. Launches were begun in 1978.
Serial cruise missile carrier version had to be built on the basis of Tu-142MK, which had had improved wing, dauble-slotted flaps and spar-box fuel tanks instead soft tanks. Bottom and upper gun turrets were removed, a lot of aerials were installed in line of fuselage skin level. Plane got new gear and wheels with other dimentions.
New plane was equipped with NK-12MP turboprops, which had power of 15000 ehp. NK-12MP engines had increased reliability and longer operational lite. They had reinforsed generators drives. For next test programme period was taken Tu-142MK, which was rebuilt from 1978 till 1979. The plane began tests in September and it was adopted in 1983 with name «Tu-95MS».
Tu-95MS serial production was begun in 1982 at TMZD. Tu-95MS got 1 revolver missile launcher in bomb-bay and the most advanced radar complex, which probably was similar Tu-160 one. Furthermore new aircraft received the latest Tu-142 version equipment. It incorporates modern Doppler drift and speed indicator, short and long range celestial and radio navigation complexes, satellite communication system and very powerful ECM equipment. Tu-95MS has such powerful ECM equipment, that the most advanced interceptor fighter MiG-31 couldn't «shoot it downs with mis-sites during tests. So, TU-95MS is equipped with pair of GSh-23 cannons in the fuselage tail section. Tu-95MS has navigation system for formation flights, which was designed for «KD» versions. The control system has non-reverced boosters. The main AC power network has 400 Hz frequency. Cabins interior got a lot of improvments.
Tu-95MS was produced at KuAZ. There were two versions: Tu-95MS-6 and Tu-95MS-16. The first one had 16 X-55 missiles in bomb-bay on revolver missile launcher, and the second one had 16 X-55 missiles. Six of them were in bomb-bay, and the rest were situated on underwing pylons.
New complex mastering was very quickly. Tu-95MS were received by 1026th TBAP (Semipalatinsk), 1006th TBAP (Uzin), 128th TBAP (Mozdock).
In the middle of eighties X-55 improved versions were introduced. They were X-55OK and X-55M/SM missiles. But X-55M/SM had increased weight, and there were only 8 missiles on external launchers.
After numerous soviet-american negotiations Tu-95MS lost external missile lounch-ers. Today Russia has about 60 Tu-95MS. Their serial production was stopped in 1992. Nevertheless, Russian Tu-95MS and Tu-160 is very powerful force today and it will be the same in XXI century.